Tagalog Unstarted Aspect

Rule: Take the basic form and repeat the first syllable of the root (rep1).

See also: Syllable repetition (p. 27), Sound changes when combining roots and affixes (p. 25)

Exception 1: If the affix is (-)um-, remove it.

basic form

unstarted

magluto’

magluluto’

maibigay

mabigay

maibibigay

mabibigay

kumain

kakain

umalis

aalis

lutuan

lulutuan

sabihin

sasabihin

iabot

iaabot

Exception 2: In the case of a few affixes, a syllable of the affix is repeated instead of the first syllable of the root.

basic form

unstarted

makikain

affix: maki-

makikikain

magpakain

affix: magpa-

magpapakain

magkakotse

affix: magka-

magkakakotse

magsikain

affix: magsi-

magsisikain

magsipagbasa

affix: magsipag-

magsisipagbasa

Alternative: In the case of a few prefixes containing a /ka/ or a /pa/, these syllables may be repeated instead of the first syllable of the root. This option is commonly used in spoken Tagalog.

basic form

unstarted (usually formal)

unstarted (usually informal)

makabasa

affix: maka-

makababasa

makakabasa

makapagbasa

affix: makapag-

makapagbabasa

makakapagbasa

papuntahin

affix: pa-…-in

papupuntahin

papapuntahin

pagbawalan

affix: pag-…-an

pagbabawalan

papagbawalan

ipagbawal

affix: ipag-

ipagbabawal

ipapagbawal

basic form

makabasa

affix: maka-

unstarted (usually formal)

makababasa

unstarted (usually informal)

makakabasa

basic form

makapagbasa

affix: makapag-

unstarted (usually formal)

makapagbabasa

unstarted (usually informal)

makakapagbasa

basic form

papuntahin

affix: pa-…-in

unstarted (usually formal)

papupuntahin

unstarted (usually informal)

papapuntahin

basic form

pagbawalan

affix: pag-…-an

unstarted (usually formal)

pagbabawalan

unstarted (usually informal)

papagbawalan

basic form

ipagbawal

affix: ipag-

unstarted (usually formal)

ipagbabawal

unstarted (usually informal)

ipapagbawal

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