Tagalog Uncompleted Aspect

Rule: Take the completed form and repeat the first syllable of the root (rep1).

See also: Completed form (p. 182), Syllable repetition (p. 27), Sound changes when combining roots and affixes (p. 25)

basic form

completed

uncompleted

magluto’

nagluto’

nagluluto’

maibigay

mabigay

naibigay

nabigay

naibibigay

nabibigay

kumain

kumain

kumakain

umalis

umalis

umaalis

lutuan

nilutuan

linutuan

nilulutuan

linulutuan

sabihin

sinabi

sinasabi

iabot

iniabot

inabot

iniaabot

inaabot

basic form

magluto’

completed

nagluto’

uncompleted

nagluluto’

basic form

maibigay

mabigay

completed

naibigay

nabigay

uncompleted

naibibigay

nabibigay

basic form

kumain

completed

kumain

uncompleted

kumakain

basic form

umalis

completed

umalis

uncompleted

umaalis

basic form

lutuan

completed

nilutuan

linutuan

uncompleted

nilulutuan

linulutuan

basic form

sabihin

completed

sinabi

uncompleted

sinasabi

basic form

iabot

completed

iniabot

inabot

uncompleted

iniaabot

inaabot

Exception: In the case of a few affixes, a syllable of the affix is repeated instead of the first syllable of the root.

basic form

completed

uncompleted

makikain

affix: maki-

nakikain

nakikikain

magpakain

affix: magpa-

nagpakain

nagpapakain

magkakotse

affix: magka-

nagkakotse

nagkakakotse

magsikain

affix: magsi-

nagsikain

nagsisikain

magsipagbasa

affix: magsipag-

nagsipagbasa

nagsisipagbasa

basic form

makikain

affix: maki-

completed

nakikain

uncompleted

nakikikain

basic form

magpakain

affix: magpa-

completed

nagpakain

uncompleted

nagpapakain

basic form

magkakotse

affix: magka-

completed

nagkakotse

uncompleted

nagkakakotse

basic form

magsikain

affix: magsi-

completed

nagsikain

uncompleted

nagsisikain

basic form

magsipagbasa

affix: magsipag-

completed

nagsipagbasa

uncompleted

nagsisipagbasa

Alternative: In the case of a few prefixes containing a /ka/ or a /pa/, these syllables may be repeated instead of the first syllable of the root. This option is commonly used in spoken Tagalog.

basic form

completed

uncompleted (usually formal)

uncompleted (usually informal)

makabasa

affix: maka-

nakabasa

nakababasa

nakakabasa

makapagbasa

affix: makapag-

nakapagbasa

nakapagbabasa

nakakapagbasa

papuntahin

affix: pa-…-in

pinapunta

pinapupunta

pinapapunta

pagbawalan

affix: pag-…-an

pinag­bawalan

pinag­babawalan

pinapag­bawalan

ipagbawal

affix: ipag-

ipinagbawal

ipinagbabawal

ipinapagbawal

basic form

makabasa

affix: maka-

completed

nakabasa

uncompleted (usually formal)

nakababasa

uncompleted (usually informal)

nakakabasa

basic form

makapagbasa

affix: makapag-

completed

nakapagbasa

uncompleted (usually formal)

nakapagbabasa

uncompleted (usually informal)

nakakapagbasa

basic form

papuntahin

affix: pa-…-in

completed

pinapunta

uncompleted (usually formal)

pinapupunta

uncompleted (usually informal)

pinapapunta

basic form

pagbawalan

affix: pag-…-an

completed

pinag­bawalan

uncompleted (usually formal)

pinag­babawalan

uncompleted (usually informal)

pinapag­bawalan

basic form

ipagbawal

affix: ipag-

completed

ipinagbawal

uncompleted (usually formal)

ipinagbabawal

uncompleted (usually informal)

ipinapagbawal

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