Tagalog Completed Aspect

Rules for indicating completed aspect:

if basic form starts with

rule

basic form

completed

  • an affix starting with /m/

replace /m/ by /n/

magluto’

mabigyan

maibigay*

nagluto’

nabigyan

naibigay*

  • um-, or
  • a consonant followed by  um-

no change

kumain

umalis

kumain

umalis

if basic form starts with

  • an affix starting with /m/

rule

replace /m/ by /n/

basic form

magluto’

mabigyan

maibigay*

completed

nagluto’

nabigyan

naibigay*

if basic form starts with

  • um-, or
  • a consonant followed by  um-

rule

no change

basic form

kumain

umalis

completed

kumain

umalis

* Usually, the /i/ in /mai-/ and /nai-/ may be deleted. Thus: mabigay, nabigay.

In cases not covered above:

if basic form starts with

rule

basic form

completed

  • /l/, /r/, /w/ or /y/, or
  • i- followed by /l/, /r/, /w/ or /y/

  • insert /ni/ before /l/, /r/, /w/ or /y/*
  • remove final  in/  hin/ nin if present

lutuan

lasingin

ilapit

nilutuan

nilasing

inilapit*

  • any other consonant, or
  • i- followed by any other consonant

  • insert /in/ after first consonant
  • remove final  in/  hin/ nin if present

sabihan

sabihin

itapon

sinabihan

sinabi

itinapon*

  • a vowel, or
  • i- followed by a vowel

  • place /in/ at beginning of word
  • remove final  in/  hin/ nin if present

alisan

alisin

iabot

inalisan

inalis

iniabot**

if basic form starts with

  • /l/, /r/, /w/ or /y/, or
  • i- followed by /l/, /r/, /w/ or /y/

rule

  • insert /ni/ before /l/, /r/, /w/ or /y/*
  • remove final  in/  hin/ nin if present

basic form

lutuan

lasingin

ilapit

completed

nilutuan

nilasing

inilapit*

if basic form starts with

  • any other consonant, or
  • i- followed by any other consonant

rule

  • insert /in/ after first consonant
  • remove final  in/  hin/ nin if present

basic form

sabihan

sabihin

itapon

completed

sinabihan

sinabi

itinapon*

if basic form starts with

  • a vowel, or
  • i- followed by a vowel

rule

  • place /in/ at beginning of word
  • remove final  in/  hin/ nin if present

basic form

alisan

alisin

iabot

completed

inalisan

inalis

iniabot**

* Alternative: Insert /in/ after /l/, /r/, /w/ or /y/. Thus: linutuan, linasing, ilinapit.

** /i/ may be deleted from the completed form. Thus: nilapit, tinapon, inabot.

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