Tagalog Indirect Speech or Thought: Not Introduced by Na/-ng or Kung

(Ang) sabi ko, nandito si John.

I said John was here.

Sabi ko kay Mary, nandito si John.

I told Mary John was here.

Sabi niya, nandito (raw) si John.

He/she said John was here.

Sabi ko, bakit?

I said, why?

Nandito siya kako.

Nandito kako siya.

I said, he/she’s here.

Sa tingin ko, umalis na si John.

I think John has left.

Sa tingin mo ba, umalis na si John?

Do you think John has left?

Palagay ko, umalis na si John.

I think (in my opinion) John has left.

Pakiramdam ko, umalis na si John.

I have a feeling John has left.

Ang pagkaintindi ko, umalis na si John.

My understanding is John has left.

Ang alam ko, umalis na si John.

What I know is that John has left.

Akala’ ko (ba), umalis na si John.*

I thought (mistakenly) John had left.

(Ang) ibig kong sabihin, umalis na si John.

I mean, John has left.

(Ang) ibig mong sabihin, umalis na si John.

You mean, John has left.

Balita’ ko, umalis na si John.

Ang rinig ko, umalis na si John.

I’ve heard John has left.

* See also: Ba (p. 325)

See also: Verbs expressing mental states or perception (p. 200)

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