Tagalog Sound Changes when Combining Roots and Affixes

In some cases, a sound change occurs when a root and an affix are combined. Such changes are reflected in the spelling. Examples:

sound change

root

affix

root + affix

from /d/ to /r/

dunong

knowledge

tawid

crossing

ma-


-in

marunong

to know how

tawirin

to cross

from /o/ to /u/

putol

cut off

-in

putulin

to cut off

from /ng/ to /n/*

dikit

sticking

luto’

cooking

pang-

pandikit

paste, glue

panluto’

cooking utensil

from /ng/ to /m/**

bansa’

nation

pito

seven

pang-

pambansa’

national

pampito

seventh

sound change

from /d/ to /r/

root

dunong

knowledge

tawid

crossing

affix

ma-


-in

root + affix

marunong

to know how

tawirin

to cross

sound change

from /o/ to /u/

root

putol

cut off

affix

-in

root + affix

putulin

to cut off

sound change

from /ng/ to /n/*

root

dikit

sticking

luto’

cooking

affix

pang-

root + affix

pandikit

paste, glue

panluto’

cooking utensil

sound change

from /ng/ to /m/**

root

bansa’

nation

pito

seven

affix

pang-

root + affix

pambansa’

national

pampito

seventh

* usually before d, l, r, s, t, and sometimes before n
** usually before b, p, and sometimes before m

In some cases, the final vowel or the first consonant of the root disappears. Examples:

root

affix

root + affix

takip

cover, lid

-an

takpan

to cover

sunod

next, following

-in

sundin

to obey

kuha’

getting

mang-

manguha’

to collect or gather

root

takip

cover, lid

affix

-an

root + affix

takpan

to cover

root

sunod

next, following

affix

-in

root + affix

sundin

to obey

root

kuha’

getting

affix

mang-

root + affix

manguha’

to collect or gather

In the case of the affixes -in and -an, /h/ or /n/ is added when the root ends in a vowel that is not followed by a glottal stop. Examples:

root

affix

root + affix

kati

itch

-in

katihin

to feel itchy

talo

defeated, beaten

-in

talunin

to defeat, to beat

mura

cheap

-an

murahan

to reduce the price of, to make cheaper

tawa

laughter

-an

tawanan

to laugh at

root

kati

itch

affix

-in

root + affix

katihin

to feel itchy

root

talo

defeated, beaten

affix

-in

root + affix

talunin

to defeat, to beat

root

mura

cheap

affix

-an

root + affix

murahan

to reduce the price of, to make cheaper

root

tawa

laughter

affix

-an

root + affix

tawanan

to laugh at

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